Intellectual capital definitions proposed by the Scandinavian scientific school

The earliest occurrence is the Scandinavian school, which was formed in the late 1980s. Twentieth century. Its founder is considered a scholar Carl Erik Sveibi. Within the framework of this school, the former director of intellectual capital of the Swedish company & quot; Skandia AFS & quot; actively works, and today the & quot; visiting professor & quot; on the intellectual capital / economics of knowledge at Lund University at the School of Economics and Management Leif Edvinson, as well as scholars Michael S. Melloun, Patrick Sullivan, Philip M'Ferson, Stefan Pike, Mark McIlray and others, whose research was based on new views regarding the competitiveness of enterprises in the "new paradigm". The contribution of representatives of this school to the development of the concept of intellectual capital, according to the submitted estimates, represents a little more than 7% (Sweden - 3.3%; Finland - 2.2%; Denmark - 1.6%). It was their work that became the fundamental basis for determining the value of business entities based on the knowledge and competencies of their employees.
The first practical attempts to develop the doctrine of intellectual capital are associated with the Scandinavian school, in particular, the scientist Carl E. Sveibi, who, using the classification method, together with the Conrad Group created by him on November 12, 1987, & quot; worked on the method of managing intangible assets of the enterprise.
For a thorough theoretical and methodological research on the concept of & quot; intellectual capital of an enterprise & quot; We come across in the works of Leif Edvinson, who adheres to the idea that this is knowledge, experience, technology, customer relationships, and professional skills that give organizations a competitive advantage in the market (in 1997). Considering that the scientist has been working in this field since the beginning of the 1990s. Of the twentieth century, we can trace the constant refinement of the definition of & quot; intellectual capital & quot ;. So, we note the reduction of inaccuracy of formulations (for example, competitive advantage) and the gradual concretization of the definitions filed. In particular, in further research, Leif Edvinson and Patrick Sullivan (1996) consider the notion of intellectual capital as knowledge that can be replaced by value from knowledge management positions in order to influence the increase in enterprise value. Leif Edvinson and Michael Malone, arguing that intellectual capital is the sum of hidden assets of an enterprise that reflect the gap between the market and book value (in 1997), note its terminological contours, indicating that this knowledge, practical experience, technology, good customer relations and any skills. Exploring the contribution of scientists to the theoretical and practical dominants of intellectual capital, let us pay attention to the advantages of a clear definition of the economic essence of the concept under study by highlighting its structural elements - human and structural capital, based on research in the insurance company "Skandia AFS". Play best friv games.